Scale effects with fire exposure of pressure-liquefied gas tanks
责任编辑:hylng    浏览:1948次    时间: 2013-06-03 15:28:54      

摘要:When a tank carrying a pressure-liquefied gas (PLG) is exposed to fire impingement, there isa risk of thermal-induced rupture of the tank. If the tank ruptures, the potential hazards includeblast, projectiles, fire and toxic exposure. These hazard..

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When a tank carrying a pressure-liquefied gas (PLG) is exposed to fire impingement, there is
a risk of thermal-induced rupture of the tank. If the tank ruptures, the potential hazards include
blast, projectiles, fire and toxic exposure. These hazards are associated with all possible scales
of PLG containers from small handheld lighters to huge storage spheres. Over the years, many
researchers have conducted scale fire-testing of tanks to improve understanding of the failure
process and the associated hazards. These tests have been done at various scales from glass
tubes and spheres containing a few cubic cm to full-scale rail tank cars carrying 130000 litres
or more. These tests have been used to improve models for fireball diameters, duration, and
blast and projectile effects. They also highlight very interesting features of the heating process
and the failure mechanisms.
One of the most strongly debated scale issues relates to the flash evaporation of pressureliquefied
gases upon sudden depressurization. If the conditions are right, a tank failure may
lead to sudden depressurization of the PLG and this may trigger an explosive phase change
resulting in a boiling liquid-expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). This topic has been an
active area of research for many years.

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of scale issues as they relate to the
heat-up and failure of a PLG container. It is hoped that this material will be useful for
emergency responders, so they can understand better the issues of scale when dealing with
accident situations.

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